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徐亞男:聯合國文件翻譯的特點

2017722日,中國譯協《譯講堂》走進西安,邀請曾任外交部翻譯室原主任、中國駐特立尼達和多巴哥共和國原大使、聯合國大會和會議管理部文件司中文處處長徐亞男作為主講嘉賓帶來了一期精彩講座。

 

 

聯合國文件翻譯的特點

 

 

徐亞男大使講座現場

 

 

 

點擊這里收看講座視頻回放

 

 

一、翻譯在聯合國的位置

 

翻譯在聯合國是一支不可或缺的隊伍。

在聯合國總部,2個部門為聯合國提供會議服務,主要負責翻譯服務,分為口譯和筆譯。其中包括6種官方語言(英法阿西俄中,兩種工作語言:英、法)的口筆譯人才及各國高級翻譯人才。

 

二、聯合國總部文件翻譯

 

1. 聯合國的語言服務

 

2. 聯合國不同的語言專業

 

A. 口譯

The core function of MPD is to provide interpretation from and into Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish for meetings held at United Nations Headquarters, and those at other locations which the department is responsible for servicing. Interpretation is essential to the inter-governmental bodies for the proper conduct and smooth functioning of their deliberations.

 

B. 筆譯

Duties and responsibilities of UN translators include: translating, subject to revision, documents covering a broad range of subjects dealt with by the United Nations, i.e., in the political, social, legal, economic, financial, administrative, scientific and technical fields. 

 

C. 逐字記錄

Duties and responsibilities of verbatim reporters include: producing in extenso verbatim records of meetings; editing the original language version as necessary for accuracy, making the required changes for style, syntax and grammar and procedure; transcribing and/or translating assigned portions of meetings; comparing transcripts of interpretation with original language versions to ensure completeness and accuracy of the records; and translating passages that are either inaccurate or incomplete. 

 

D. 編輯

Duties and responsibilities of editors include: ensuring that the phraseology, the terminology and, where appropriate, the translation are correct and that the style is appropriate to the audience; editing for continuity, logic, completeness, relevance of material, readability, clarity of expression and consistency, as well as spelling, punctuation and grammar; verifying the accuracy of facts, figures and references through research and consultation; identifying unclear or ambiguous statements and proposing amendments for consideration by the author, the supervising editor or the relevant translation service. 

 

E. 詞匯、資料員

 

F. 文本校對編輯

Duties and responsibilities of copy Preparer/Proofreader/Production Editor include copy-editing electronic manuscripts of publications, ensuring accuracy of content, terminology, grammar, syntax, punctuation and spelling, and conformity with United Nations style; importing text into desktop publishing software and completing formatting of text, tabular matter, front matter and back matter, using electronic templates and style sheets; proofreading galley or page proofs against original source manuscript to ensure that the printed version is a true transcription of the text supplied for publishing, and introducing corrections of substance, spelling, grammar, style and typography; completing cross references within text and footnotes, as well as pagination and correlation of tables of contents with listed items in a publication; checking the concordance of text with texts of other official languages to ensure substantive and typographical conformity; and reading amended proofs against previous proofs and incorporating additional editorial alterations as required.

 

3. 文件翻譯的流程

 

聯合國文件翻譯的宗旨:qualityquantitytimelinesscost-effectiveness.

 

4. 聯合國文件翻譯使用的工具和技術

 

積極鼓勵使用工具,053月底以前要求百分之百使用電腦,不需要再進行手寫。中文的多音字比較多,所以輸入后要反復檢查。資料需要自己去辨別是否可靠。不論使用什么樣的翻譯軟件都是有利有弊的,機器會給我們帶來效率。

 

三、聯合國文件翻譯的特點

 

第一、語種平等

 

Catford曾告誡我們,“The concept of equivalence can cause problems because it can be interpreted in different things. In equivalence, it is not only the word that is taken into consideration but the context is also considered.

 

Words denoting ethnical or political ideas or emotions usually have different meanings in different languages and cultures. Although these words exist in other cultures and languages, the meanings attributed to them differ from culture to culture and this explains the difficulty in translating culturally distant languages.

 

第二 、敏感度高

 

聯合國助理秘書長在2008年上海舉行世界翻譯大會上說:Translation and interpretation in the United Nations share many things in common with the exercise of these activities in other contexts and settings. But translating in a political organization like the United Nations, made up as it is of sovereign Member States, has a number of distinctive features and characteristics that are unknown to our colleagues working in the private sector, or even in other less overtly political intergovernmental organizations.  

 

UN translations reflect political contexts where nuance is essential to meaning. Variations from nuanced meaning can cause problems for delicately negotiated resolutions and agreements among Member States. A challenge for many UN translations is not only accurately capturing precise meanings, but also accurately capturing ambiguities.  It is not uncommon for Member States to intentionally leave parts of resolutions and agreements ambiguous, just as other parts are precise, so they can bridge national and political differences to make progress on a subject.  

 

1a haven for terrorists or heaven for terrorists  v. paradis pour les terroristes

 

2eight hundred years of Mongolian Statehood 蒙古國建國800

維基百科The Mongol Empire (Mongolian) existed during the 13th and 14th centuries, and was one of the largest contiguous land empires in human history. Beginning in the Central Asian steppes, it eventually stretched from Central Europe to the Sea of Japan, covering Siberia in the north and extending southward into Indochina, the Indian subcontinent, the Iranian plateau, and the Middle East.

The Mongol Empire emerged from the unification of Mongol and Turkic tribes of historical Mongolia under the leadership of Genghis Khan. Genghis Khan was proclaimed ruler of all Mongols in 1206. The empire grew rapidly under his rule and then under the rule of his descendants, who sent invasions in every direction.  

 

3Falkland Islands v. Malvinas

2009105日秘書處通知The following is a reminder of Secretariat practice concerning references to the Falkland Islands (Malvinas) 

The rule, according to ST/CS/SER.A/42, is that the designation "Falkland Islands (Malvinas)" should be used in all documents "emanating from the Secretariat".  

 

420063月安南秘書長題為 Investing in the United Nations: for a stronger Organization worldwide”的報告,全文共八個部分,其中七部分的題目都以investing in”開頭,它們分別是:Investing in People; Investing in Leadership; Investing in Information and Communications Technology; Investing in New Ways of Delivering Service; Investing in Budget and Finance; Investing in Governance; and Investing in Change.   

 

508年安理會有關中東問題的一項決議:“有關爭端各方” the parties to a dispute

 

6occupied territories

 

第三、 時效性強

 

要求翻譯對外語的理解力、領悟力很強,并對母語(main language)擁有很高的造詣。

 

第四、 同步出稿horizontal synchronization

 

第五、涉及內容廣

 

1. 法律文件用詞非常嚴謹,需要真正了解、理解了關鍵詞的實質涵義再翻譯。

 

1《殘疾人權利國際公約》Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities這是一個法律文件,準確翻譯至關重要。公約第12Article 12 - Equal recognition before the law,其2款是:States Parties shall recognize that persons with disabilities enjoy legal capacity on an equal basis with others in all aspects of life.締約國應當確認殘疾人在生活的各方面在與其他人平等的基礎上享有法律權利能力

 

阿拉伯集團在會上討論這一公約時提出了下面的意見:

The Arab Group is opposed to this paragraph as a matter of principle because, in practice, legal capacity on an equal basis with others in all fields is a negation of the rights of persons with certain types of disabilities, especially those who are mentally disabled and whose disability does not allow them to enjoy legal capacity, particularly in matters of inheritance or finance. To stipulate legal capacity in an absolute manner will lead to the exploitation of persons with certain types of mental disabilities.  Legal capacity also means legal responsibility before a court.

 

2國際海洋法法庭近幾年每年的年度報告都會提及一件事,即:孟加拉國和緬甸就孟加拉灣海洋劃界的訴訟案。英文原文是:On 14 December 2009proceedings were instituted before the Tribunal in relation to the delimitation of the maritime boundary in the Bay of Bengal between Bangladesh and Myanmar.

 

但每年中文版年報的譯法卻不盡相同:

(1) 2010年報:“20091214日,孟加拉國和緬甸就孟加拉灣海洋邊界劃界問題向法庭提起訴訟。”

(2) 2011年報:“20091214日,為了孟加拉國和緬甸在孟加拉灣的海洋邊界劃界問題向法庭提起了訴訟。”

(3) 2012年報:“20091214日,法庭收到了針對孟加拉國和緬甸在孟加拉灣的海洋劃界提出的訴訟。”

 

2. 背景知識

 

1聯大四委2005年通過的有關Assistance in Mine Action決議案

 

2Due regard should be paid to the importance of recruiting the staff on as wide a geographical basis as possible.

征聘人員時,于可能范圍內,應充分注意地域上之普及

The United Nations seeks to appoint the most qualified people in each occupational group and to have geographical distribution as well as gender balance.

 

3聯合國經常為節省經費采取改革措施。下面的一句話摘自一份改革文件:

To rationalize country presence through common premises and services

通過共同房地和共同服務的做法,使國家存在合理化。

 

420131月,圖瓦盧遞交的人權簽約國的核心報告的第一部分,涉及報告國家的概況,談到經濟時:(Bonus revenue from fishing licenses resulted in a high level of annual growth in 1998 with 19.7%.The fishing licenses combined with dot TV revenue and the contribution from foreign reserves helped deliver an average annual growth rate of 4.3%.

撈許,加上電視收入和外匯儲備,使得年均增4.3%

 

第六、新概念、新詞匯

 

前秘書長安南在為 UN Ideas That Changed the World一書作序時說:"Many of the UN's contributions have been pioneering, or "Ahead of the Curve," as the title of the project's first volume put it. Sometimes these ideas have been accepted broadly and fairly quickly, such as goals to guide national and international development; in other cases, the UN has come up with what seemed at the time to be outlandish or controversial ideas or proposals, such as the need for concessional loans to poorer countries, special support for least developed countries, or debt relief -- only to find that the ideas became mainstream after a decade or longer".  

 

1gendergender mainstreaming

We recognize the importance of gender mainstreaming as a tool for achieving gender equality. We undertake to actively promote the mainstreaming of a gender perspective in the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of policies and programmes in all political, economic and social spheres. 

我們確認必須提高社會性別主流化實現兩性平等。我們保證積極促進在政治、經濟和社會領域各項政策和方案的制定、執行、監測和評估中使社會性別觀點主流化

 

2inclusive financial system

 

3governance

Strong management can only work if it responds to strong governance.  These reforms are in danger of failing unless there is a trusting relationship between this institutions governance the Member States intergovernmental mechanisms and its management, namely myself and my colleagues.

強有力的管理惟有與強有力的決策指導相呼應,才能有所作為。本組織的決策機構,即會員國的政府間機制,與本組織的管理部門,也即我和我的同事們,這兩者之間必須有信任關系,不然,改革就面臨失敗的危險。

 

Intergovernmental bodies would govern the Organization in the sense of making high-level decisions on priorities, policies and the overall allocation of resources by leaving operational details to be managed by the Secretariat.

政府間機構確定聯合國的大政方針,就優先事項、政策及資源的統籌分配作出高層決策,而將具體的業務問題交由秘書處管理。

 

第七,institutional memory機構記憶或歷史記憶

 

1call-in “扣應”

 

2review counter-terrorism work

 

3reclassificationposts分別譯為:“改敘”和“員額”。

 

A) Reclassifications of two general service level posts to the international professional level are proposed.  

原譯:提議將兩個一般事務職等員額改敘為國際專業人員職等。

 

B) I ask the GA to revive its discussion of creating the post of Chief Information Technology Officer.

原譯:我請求大會恢復討論設立首席信息技術干事員額一事。

 

4economic growth, 經濟增長v.經濟成長

 

第八、聯合國文件的風格

 

聯合國條約、協定、公約等法律文件的中文翻譯,必須嚴謹,符合中文的行文習慣,盡可能使用法律用語,確保行文準確、明確、清析、簡潔。 僅舉幾例,進行比較。



1In the event that a person applying for citizenship is found to have ties with terrorism, such request is declined.

原譯:申請公民資格的個人被發現與恐怖主義有關的,申請不予許可。

建議:任何個人一旦發現與恐怖主義有牽連,其公民資格的申請不予批準。

 

2The law provides for penalties against underreporting or misrepresenting the value of goods.

原譯:法律規定對少報或謊報貨物價值的行為進行處罰。

建議:對少報或謊報貨物價值,法律有處罰規定。

 

文件翻譯的語言風格,應盡可能使用書面語言。

 

1The Secretariat has struggled to cope with the changed environment.

原譯:秘書處要很費力才能應對變化的環境。

建議:秘書處勉強應對環境的變化。

 

2Progress in the development of international legal norms, standards and policies has not been accompanied by comparable progress in their implementation at the national level, which remains insufficient and inconsistent in all parts of the world. 

原譯:與制訂國際法律規范、標準和政策方面所取得的進展相比,世界各國在實施這些法律規范、標準和政策方面進展緩慢,實施不夠充分,而且不能夠一貫堅持。

建議:國際法律規范、標準和政策的制訂方面取得了進展,但各國在實施方面卻沒有相應的進展,執行法規、標準和政策的進展不理想,且不平衡。

 

3Underlying a smoothly running UN must be a system of governance that gives Member States the information and tools they need to provide proper guidance to the Secretariat, and to hold it accountable for fulfillment of their mandates and stewardship of their resources. 

原譯:聯合國必須有一套良好的決策指導制度,才能順利運作。這套制度向會員國提供它們所需的信息和手段,以便會員國為秘書處提供適當的指導,并對秘書處履行會員國所授任務和運用會員國所提供資源的情況實行問責。

建議:要確保聯合國順利運作,必須有健全的決策體系,為會員國提供其所需的信息和手段,以便會員國正確指導秘書處工作,確保秘書處切實完成會員國所授任務,用好會員國提供的資金。


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